Define Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step to move an individual closer to the desired behavior.
Methods of Shaping Behavior
There are four ways to shaping behavior –
1. Positive reinforcement: Positive reinforcement is often used in operant conditioning to increase the likelihood that behaviors will occur.
In other words, Positive Reinforcement is a technique used by organizations to modify their employees behavior by reinforcing desired behaviors.
It is positive motivation for the organization.
It is negative motivation for the organization.
3. Punishment: The infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offence.
In other words, Punishment consists of administering a negative consequence when the undesired behavior occurs.
4. Extinction: The state or process of being or becoming extinct.
According to operant conditioning, both bad and good behaviors are controlled by reinforced consequences. Identifying behavioral reinforces and removing them can decrease a behavior. An undesired behavior without reinforcement can diminish until it no longer occurs. This process is called extinction.
Schedules of Reinforcement
There are two major types of reinforcement schedules –
1. Continuous Reinforcement: A Continuous Reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated.
In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs.
Example: Mother always giving advice to her son.
2. Intermittent Reinforcement: Intermittent reinforcement refers to a time when the rewards, rules and personal barriers are handed out irregularly.
Intermittent reinforcement is reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.