These three are also independent variables and human input.
The purpose of understanding organizations from all three levels (individual, group, and organization) is to develop a well-rounded view that will prepare us for the challenges that managers face in today’s business environment.
Individual level: Focusing on the individual level allows us to understand individual differences, perception, motivation, and learning.
Group level: Focusing on the group level shows us how more than two people can work together in groups or teams within an organization.
Organization level: Focusing on the organization level allows us to see the effects of the organizational environment, technology, strategy, structure, and culture.
Human output and Dependent Variables:
There are six dependent variables –
Productivity is the state or quality of being productive.
Productivity = Value / Time
In that case we need to increase the value created and decrease the time required to create that value.
Also productivity is the performance that includes effectiveness and efficiency.
Value is the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness.
Absenteeism is the practice of regularly staying away from work without good reason. High levels of absenteeism caused by low job motivation.
Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty. Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.
In human resources context, turnover or staff turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees.
It is the rate at which employees leave a workforce and are replaced.
Simple ways to describe it are “how long employees tend to stay” or “the rate of traffic through the revolving door”. Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole.
Deviant Workplace Behavior:
Deviant Workplace Behavior is an Individual behavior that does not conform to the Workplace norms and values, and doing so effects the organizational structure, harmony and performance.
Deviant Workplace Behavior encompasses both Crime and Otherness. Otherness is Non-conformance with both formal and informal.
Example: Deviant behaviors There is set of social features ,which provided to man to regulate his behavior according to that set of norms and values. Some of them in society fail to conform to these norms. Failure to conform to the traditional norms of the society is deviant behavior .According to Parsons ,there are two types of deviant behavior. A- firstly, he defines ,it as “motivated tendency for an actor to behave in a contravention of one or more institutionalized normative pattern.” B- Secondly he defines it as “the tendency on the part of one or more of the component actors to behave in such a way to disturb the equilibrium .of interactive process,” Various violence ,crimes and oppositions are examples of deviant behavior. This deviant behavior brings tensions, disorganization ,conflicts and presents new challenges in social system.
Robinson and Bennett (1995), we define deviance as employee “voluntaryBehavior that violates significant organizational norms and in so doing threatens the well- being of an organization, its members. Bennett and Robinson suggested categorizingdeviant behaviors into two primary families based on the target of the behavior: organizational deviance and interpersonal deviance.
Organizational deviance refers to deviant behaviors directed toward the organization, examples of which include tardiness,wasting organizational resources, and stealing from the organization; interpersonal deviance refers to deviant behaviors that are directed toward other employees in the organization and examples include gossiping, verbal abuse and stealing from coworkers”
Citizenship behavior is the individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Citizenship behavior are employee behaviors that, although not critical to the task or job, serve to facilitate organizational functioning.
Organizational citizenship is a concept that all companies wish to have but very few can actually achieve. It is rooted in individual employees’ view of the company and how they associate themselves with it.
Citizenship behavior can take many different forms, such as: Assisting coworkers, Working for the future, Being a company representative etc.
Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job. Scholars and human resource professionals generally make a distinction between affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction.
Affective job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive job satisfaction which is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, pension arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs.